Sunday, January 18, 2015

Wavescan NWS308

* Theme - 00:00
            “Birthday Serenade - Willi Glahe

* Opening Announcement - 00:16
            Welcome to Wavescan, international DX program from Adventist World Radio
            Researched and written in Indianapolis, produced in studios of shortwave WRMI
            Program outline
                        1. French Radio in the South Pacific: New Caledonia - 2
                        2. Underwater Radio
                        3. EDXC Report: interviews David Ricquish & George Brown
                        4. Special QSL of the Week SQOTW24: The Worlds Shortest Reception Report
* Focus on the South Pacific.  French Radio in the South Pacific: New Caledonia - 2 - 00:52 
            The introduction of wireless technology into New Caledonia, the French colony in the South Pacific, took place in the year 1920 when a new wireless station was installed at the Semaphore Station in Noumea, the island capital.  The Semaphore Station was a white square tower located on a hill top, a little over 300 feet high.  The callsign for this new maritime wireless station was FQN, indicating a French territorial possession.
            The equipment at the station was changed from electrical spark operation to electronic valve or tube operation in 1924, and a new callsign was adopted, HZG.  Then 8 years later, the transmission equipment was upgraded and modernized at apparently a new location, and again a new callsign was allocated, this time FJP.   Test broadcasts from this new facility were noted in the United States on exactly 6000 kHz, and also 7100 kHz in 1936.
            Two years earlier, in the month of July 1934, photographer and electrician, Charles Graveau in Noumea New Caledonia began to implement procedures in order to obtain government approval to establish his own amateur radio station.  He took to the air during the next year with the use of his home made transmitter rated at just 20 watts input; that is 12 watts output, as listed in a historic document.
            At this time, the Charles Graveau station, licensed with the amateur callsign FK8AA, was simply an amateur operation in use to communicate with any other amateur radio station that could hear his low power signal.  However, as was the custom in those days, there were occasions when FK8AA radiated music from whatever gramophone records were available.
            However, the real objective of Charles Graveau was to establish a radio broadcasting station, and on April 28, 1937 he began a regular program service over his amateur station, FK8AA.  Each Wednesday and Saturday evening his radio broadcasts went on the air, an hour in duration beginning at 5:30 pm.
            This new radio broadcasting service was inaugurated over his amateur radio station in the family home at 44 Rue del Alma, in Noumea, New Caledonia.  He identified the station on air as Radio Noumea", though the official callsign FK8AA was still in vogue.
            The new Radio Noumea FK8AA was first noted internationally in New Zealand in January of the following year 1938, and from that time onwards, the station was sought by many international radio monitors in New Zealand, Australia and the United States.  Even at such a low power, the station was heard occasionally at a great distance.  Even though QSL cards were available, obtaining one was just as difficult as even hearing the station. 
            The hobby and commercial radio magazines in the same three countries, New Zealand, Australia and the United States, frequently reported news about the station, and on occasions even showed successful loggings.  Initially FK8AA was logged on 6120 or 6122 kHz, though in the earlier part of the year 1940, the frequency was adjusted to 6130 kHz.  Perhaps the transmitter was modified at this stage to increase the power a little.
            Around a year later, the station in its sign off routine added two more anthems to its scheduling.  In addition to the French Le Marseillaise, listeners now heard also God Save the King and the Star Spangled Banner, as a tribute to the islands allies.  Soon afterwards, March Lorraine became a signature tune for these still twice weekly program broadcasts.
            However, due to the international attention that was coming to New Caledonia with the massive American presence, the local government began active planning in 1942 for an official government radio broadcasting station.  This new station was inaugurated on air towards the end of that year, or perhaps very early in the next year, 1943.  At that stage, the original FK8AA as a broadcast station was retired, though the amateur operation was revived again after the end of the Pacific War.
            The Australian magazine Radio & Hobbies reported the new government station for the first time in April 1943, when a new channel 6155 kHz was noted, though the previous callsign FK8AA was still shown, perhaps incorrectly.  The final listing with the FK8AA callsign in this same magazine was in July 1946.   
            Programming and scheduling over the new Radio Pacifique Noumea was very similar to the earlier FK8AA, and apparently the concept and perhaps some of the family staff were transferred from the old station to the new.  During the latter part of the war years, the new Radio Noumea increased its hours of on air programming and they also broadcast special programming for troops serving in the Pacific arena.
            That is the story of the amateur become professional radio broadcast station, FK8AA in Noumea, New Caledonia.  Interestingly though, there was another radio broadcasting station on another French island in the South Pacific with a similar amateur background and with a similar callsign.  This other station was on the air under the callsign, not FK8AA but rather FO8AA, and it was not located in New Caledonia but rather in Tahiti.  Thats the story for another occasion here in Wavescan.   

* Program Announcement - 07:17
            Allen Graham

* Underwater Radio - 08:03
            It is known that at least five radio broadcasting stations, or major components thereof, are lying at the bottom of the ocean in the ship that was carrying the equipment at the time.  Four of these sunken ships were due to enemy action, and one was the result of a fierce winter storm. 
            Back in the year 1940, soon after the onset of the European Conflict, a 100 kW shortwave transmitter, manufactured at the Marconi company in Chelmsford England, was shipped out to Singapore Island.  It was intended that this transmitter would be installed at a new shortwave station still under construction, adjacent to the early Radio Malaya station at Jurong on the western side of Singapore island.  When activated, this station was to act as a relay for the BBC London, with coverage into Asia and the Pacific.
            However, due to an attack by an enemy submarine, the ship was sunk en route and the entire cargo was lost, including the electronic equipment for the new BBC shortwave relay station.  Instead, a 50 kW RCA shortwave transmitter was subsequently consigned to Singapore, but before it could be activated, it was removed and taken to Barbados in the Caribbean where it was installed for Cable & Wireless at Bearded Hall under the callsign VPO.
            Back in the year 1941, plans were laid for the installation of a megapowered mediumwave station at a secret underground location near Crowborough in England.  This station was intended to  beam surreptitious programming in various languages to continental Europe, and also to act as a BBC relay station for coverage into the same continental areas. 
            At the time, a super powered 500 kW transmitter was nearing  completion at the RCA factory in Camden New Jersey which had been ordered by NBC for mediumwave WJZ at Bound Brook, New Jersey.  However, the FCC had imposed a 50 kW power limit for mediumwave stations in the United States and NBC-WJZ no longer needed this huge transmitter.
            China demonstrated an interest in procuring this megalithic transmitter, but while negotiations were still underway, the British government arranged to purchase it and have it shipped across the Atlantic.  The transmitter was re-engineered for 600 kW, disassembled into smaller units, crated and stowed separately into several different ships.
            One of these cargo ships, carrying the antennas and towers, was sunk in the Atlantic by an enemy submarine and the equipment was lost.  Very hurriedly, new towers and antennas were manufactured in the United States and freighted across the Atlantic where it was all installed above ground for the underground American transmitter, known as Aspidistra, at Crowborough.  
            During the latter half of the European Conflict, PWI Press Wireless International, manufactured and shipped across the Atlantic numerous transmitters, large and small, for use in islandic and continental Europe.  Some of these shipments contained their famous 40 kW shortwave transmitter, and other shipments contained complete mobile radio broadcasting stations.  The mobile stations usually contained a 400 watt transmitter, always capable of high speed Morse Code, and sometimes also capable of voice transmission. 
            Much of this radio equipment was manufactured at their new factory quite near to their large shortwave station at Hicksville on Long Island, New York and then shipped across the Atlantic.  PWI states that at least one of these mobile stations was sunk by an enemy submarine in 1944, and that station still lies to this day on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean.    
            Also in the year 1944, Lord Louis Mountbatten expedited the construction of a large shortwave station at Ekala, a dozen miles north of Colombo in Ceylon, as it was known in those days.  A large shipment of radio equipment, including electronic items from the Marconi factory at Chelmsford and redundant antenna systems from the Isle of Wight, were shipped out from England. 
            However, the entire consignment was lost to enemy submarine action in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Sri Lanka.  Ultimately, a new consignment of equipment was sent out from England, and this was installed at the SEAC installation at Ekala, where it was in use for many years for the relay of programming by the BBC London, the Voice of America and Adventist World Radio.  This SEAC station also carried programming on behalf of SLBC, the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation.
            Back in 1965, Ronan ORahilly in England ordered a 50 kW mediumwave transmitter from Continental Electronics in Dallas Texas for installation on the ship Mi Amigo, which was on the air at the time as the famous pirate radio station, Radio Caroline.  During that era, Continental was constructing several 50 kW mediumwave transmitters, Model 317C, for various clients.
            However, the BBC suddenly needed two 50 kW mediumwave transmitters for its new Central Africa Relay Station at Francistown in Botswana and entrepreneur ORahilly agreed to allow the BBC to take the No 12 transmitter that he had ordered.  The BBC also took an additional unit, No 13, so ORahilly agreed to accept transmitter No 14 in this series which he installed on board the Mi Amigo.
            Some 15 years later, on March 19, 1980, the ship Mi Amigo encountered a Force 10 storm and she drifted for 10 nautical miles before running aground on the Long Sand Bank.  The ship sank next day where she now lies in 10 feet of water in the Thames Estuary out from London. 
            The 50 kW mediumwave transmitter also went down with the ship, and that is where it lies to this day, at the shallow bottom of the North Sea!    
* EDXC France Report - 14:23
            Interviews: David Ricquish
                              George Brown

* SQOTW24 Special QSL of the Week: The Worlds Shortest Reception Report - 23:32
            It is rather obvious that a good reception report should contain detailed information that is heard from a radio broadcasting station, and it is preferable that this information should extend over a period of at least 20 minutes or more.  However, there are occasions when a shorter reception report may be acceptable.
            Back on July 17, 1986, I was traveling by car for an appointment in a country area in Indiana in the United States.  In a lonely isolated location where electrical interference would not be expected, I stopped the car and turned on the radio receiver.  The desired station was WQTC on 1520 kHz in the town of Bryan, in the neighboring state Ohio.
            Four years earlier, I had visited this mediumwave radio station in Bryan when it was on the air under an earlier callsign, WBNO.  At that time, this station was on the air with the usage of solar energy electricity, the first and only station in the United Sates that was using solar panels for this purpose.  I already had received a QSL from WBNO with ½ kW on 1520kHz.
            However, the station had been sold and under the new management, the callsign was changed to WQTC, still with solar power and still with ½ kW on the same channel 1520 kHz.  However, I did desire a QSL card acknowledging the new callsign WQTC.
            Unfortunately, even though mediumwave station WQTC was on the air in the adjoining state, yet reception on the radio was terrible, with lots of QRN and QRM; local electrical noise and interference from other stations.  However, at the bottom of the hour, I did hear just two identifiable words, Bryan Radio
            And so, I did send a reception report and a prepared QSL card to the station in Bryan Ohio.  In the reception report, I apologized for such a brief report, but I stated that I had heard just two identifiable words, and that these two words indicated an advertisement for a radio shop in Bryan, or it was part of the station identification announcement.
            In due course, the prepared QSL card, rubber stamped onto a Post Office Postal Card, came back to my home address, duly signed and rubber stamped with the old callsign WBNO, though the new callsign WQTC was also shown on the card.
            A verified reception report containing just two words?  You had better do better than that!

* Music of the World - 26:20
            New Caledonia: Traditional folk music, local instrumental & group vocal

* Closing Announcement - 26:40
            Thanks for listening to Wavescan, international DX program from Adventist World Radio
            Researched and written in Indianapolis
            Next week:-
                        1. Radio Broadcasting in the Land of the Three Rivers: Diamond Jubilee Celebrations
                        2. Australian DX Report
                        3. SQOTW24 Special QSL of the Week: Nostalgic Memories of First Radio Broadcast

            Several QSL cards available.  Send your AWR & KSDA reception reports for Wavescan to the                            AWR address in Indianapolis; and also to the station your radio is tuned to: WRMI or                                 WWCR or KVOH, or to the AWR relay stations that carry Wavescan.  Remember too,                             you can send a reception report to each of the DX reporters when their segment is on                          the air here in Wavescan: Japan, Bangladesh, Philippines, Australia & India.  They will                             verify with their own colorful QSL card.  Return postage and an address label are always                       appreciated.
            Wavescan address:-
                        Box 29235
                        Indiana 46229 USA
            Wavescan @
            Jeff White, shortwave WRMI

* Music Outrun - 28:26

* Program Ends - 28:55

1. Underwater Radio

Radio Stations Lost at Sea
No  Year  Date                   Station      Country      Location               Equipment                   Ocean             NWS  
1.  1940                  BBC         Singapore  Jurong                  100 kW Marconi         Indian                  1
2.  1941 Summer   BBC         England     Crowborough        Masts & antennas       Atlantic            292
3.  1944                  PWI          Europe                  Continent               Mobile station              Atlantic            312     
4.  1944                  SEAC       Ceylon       Ekala                     Equipment                   Indian              179
5.  1980 March 20 Caroline    England    Long Sand Bank    50 kW Continental      Thames           253

2. The Radio Scene in the Exotic South Pacific

Topics in Alphabetic Order of Island

 No.     Island                           Topic                                Years                      NWS                            -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  01.     Bruny                          Callsign VLA                           1930 - 1941     306
  02.     Enderbury                  Eclipse                                                1937 - 1944       28
  03.     Howland                      Amelia Earhart                        1937 - 2014     276
  04.     New Caledonia           American Radio Stations        1943 - 1946     306
                                                French Radio South Pacific   1920 - 1942     308
  05.     Ocean                       Pacific Deception                   1942 - 1945       76
  06.     Pitcairn                        Pitcairn Backgrounds             xxxx  - 2009      19
                                                Pitcairn Radio - 1                    1921 - 1939       19
                                                Pitcairn Radio - 2                    1922 - 1944       20
                                                Return to Pitcairn                    1938 - 1938       42
                                                Callsigns & QSL Cards           1921 - 2012       43
                                                Pitcairn on the Air                   2006 - 2012     191
  07.     Saipan                         Original KSAI                          1945 - 1946     133
  08.     Tonga                          Tin Can Eclipse                       1930 - 1930       50
                                                Tonga Radio                           1921 - 2009       55

3. French Radio in the South Pacific: New Caledonia - 2

Early Broadcasting Stations
  Year  Information                                                                                          -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Early Wireless Station
  1920              1st wireless station established in Noumea, New Caledonia             DXM New Caledonia 
                                    Semaphore Station, square white tower                        US Hydrographic Office 91
                                    Standing back of town 312 feet above sea level
                                    FQN 22 16 12 S & 166 27 32 E
  1921              FQN Noumea Semaphore Station                                                          YBWT&T 82.7 550
  1923              FQN Noumeau                                                                                 WW 82.2 23-3-23 4 10
  1924              HZG Noumea Semaphore Station                                                          YBWT&T 82.7 500
  1928              HZG Noumea Semaphore Station                                                       AWARG 79.1 146 41
  1936 Jan       New station testing 6000 kHz                                                                   IDXA-TGC 1-36 6
  1936 May      Testing on 7100 kHz                                                                                         ISWC 5-36 9   
  1937              Listed as FJP Noumea                                                                  Howland Earhart Search
  1949              Medical alert radio, FJP Noumea                                                                       WHGlibdoc
  1949              FJP 700 kHz 300 w                                                             YB 84.2 FIBS 15-4-49 152 219
                                    Radio Noumea 6000 8182 & 6208 500 watts

Amateur Station Becomes Radio Broadcasting Station FK8AA
  1934 Jul        Charles Graveau, 44 Rue del Alma, Noumea,                                        Newspaper report
                                    RQ official permission establish radio station
  1935              FK8AA station began broadcasting, assistance from family              DXM New Caledonia
  1937 Apr 28  FK8AA 12 watts 20:00 1st official program                                              Newspaper report
  1938 Jan       New Radio Noumea heard NZ 1½ hrs daily 6120 kHz                                  ISWC 1-38 12
  1938 Aug       FK8AA QSL lists power as 20 watts (input)                                                     ISWC 8-38 5
  1938 Sep       FK8AA 1 hr Wed & Sat 6120 kHz 20 watts                                                    ISW 10-38 12
  1939 Apr       FK8AA 6120 kHz Wed & Sat 5:30-6:30 quite good signal                     R&H 79.11 5-39 58
  1939 Jun       FK8AA 6122 kHz heard only once Sydney                                           R&H 79.11 7-39 57
  1939 Aug       FK8AA 6122 kHz heard east coast Australia Wed & Sat 5:30-6:30      R&H 79.11 9-39 55
  1939 Sep       FK8AA 6122 kHz heard east coast Australia Wed & Sat 5:30-6:30    R&H 79.11 10-39 54
  1939 Oct       FK8AA 6122 kHz heard well Wed & Sat 5:30 - 6:30                            R&H 77.10 11-39 54
  1939 Nov      FK8AA heard NZ & Brisbane 6122 kHz                                               R&H 79.11 12-39 50
  1939 Nov      FK8AA heard NZ ATC 6140 kHz 50 watts                                                          DXP 9-94 1
  1939 Dec      FK8AA 6122 kHz, heard not as well as few months back                     R&H 79.11 1-40 68
  1940 Jan       FK8AA 6122 kHz weak signal                                                                R&H 79.11 2-40 56
  1940 Mar       FK8AA 6122 kHz, fair signal late afternoon (reported on 6132?)          R&H 79.11 4-40 57
  1940 Apr       FK8AA 6122 kHz fair strength 6:00 pm                                                 R&H 77.10 5-40 63
  1940 May      FK8AA 6130 kHz, station has changed frequency                                R&H 77.10 6-40 62
  1940 Jun       FK8A A 6130 kHz good signal 5:30-6:30                                               R&H 77.10 7-40 64
  1940 Jun       Same as below                                                                                               ISWC 6-40 16
  1940 Jul        FK8AA 6130 kHz, now nightly                                                                R&H 79.11 8-40 58
  1940 Aug       Heard every night Australia NZ 6130 kHz good signal 5:30-6:30         R&H 77.10 9-40 56
  1940 Sep       FK8AA 6130 kHz, heard well nightly                                                    R&H 79.11 10-40 57
  1940 Oct       FK8AA 6130 kHz, signaled weakened recently                                   R&H 77.10 11-40 55
  1940 Dec      FK8AA 6130 kHz heard very weakly around 5:30 pm                          R&H 77.10 1-41 55
  1941 Jan       FK8AA listed 6120 kHz, power unknown                                                       ISWC 2-41 16
                                    Charles Graveau, 44 Rue del Alma, Noumea
  1941 Jan       FK8AA 6130 kHz sometimes fair signal, sometimes inaudible              R&H 77.10 2-41 56
  1941 Feb       FK8AA 6130 kHz heard occasionally 5:30 pm                                      R&H 77.10 3-41 55
  1941 Apr       FK8AA 6130 kHz heard opening every night 5:30 pm quite fair signal R&H 77.10 5-41 57
  1941 May      FK8AA 6130 kHz 5:30 - 6:30 pm                                                           R&H 77.10 6-41 57
                                    Plays Star Spangled Banner, GSTK & Marseillaise
  1941 May 11 FK8AA 6130 kHz, heard with afternoon church service                        R&H 77.10 6-41 57
  1941 Jun       FK8AA 6130 kHz, occasional additional program in afternoon             R&H 77.10 7-41 57
  1941 Jul        FK8AA 6130 kHz fair strength                                                                R&H 77.10 8-41 57
  1941 Aug       FK8AA 6130 kHz loud signal 5:30 pm - 6:30 pm                                   R&H 77.10 9-41 57
  1941 Sep       FK8AA 6130 kHz good signal                                                               R&H 79.11 10-41 56
  1941 Oct       FK8AA 6130 kHz coming in fairly well                                                 R&H 77.10 11-41 57
  1941 Nov      FK8AA listed 6120 kHz, power unknown                                                       ISWC 2-41 16
                                    Charles Graveau, 44 Rue del Alma, Noumea
  1941 Nov      FK8AA 6130 kHz 6130 kHz, quite good at opening                             R&H 77.10 12-41 56
                                    Now uses March Lorraine
  1941 Dec      FK8AA 6130 kHz still heard 5:30 pm                                                     R&H 79.11 1-42 57
  1942 Jan       FK8AA 6130 kHz good strength                                                             R&H 77.10 2-42
  1942 Feb       FK8AA 6130 kHz not heard Sydney, but heard elsewhere                   R&H 77.10 3-42 57
  1942 Apr       FK8AA 6130 kHz heard occasionally, Free French programming        R&H 77.10 5-42 57
  1942 May      FK8AA 6130 kHz poor signal in Sydney                                                R&H 77.10 6-42 51
  1942 Jun       FK8AA 6130 kHz Planning to increase English programming               R&H 77.10 7-42 51
  1942 Jul        FK8AA 6130 kHz poor signal                                                                 R&H 77.10 8-42 51
  1942 Aug       FK8AA 6130 kHz week signal recent months                                        R&H 77.10 9-42 51
  1942 Sep       FK8AA 6130 kHz fair signal                                                                 R&H 77.10 10-42 51
  1942 Oct       FK8AA 6130 kHz fair signal                                                                 R&H 77.10 11-42 51
  1942 Nov      FK8AA 6130 kHz heard quite well                                                        R&H 77.10 12-42 51
  1942 Dec      FK8AA 6130 kHz heard quite well                                                          R&H 77.10 1-43 51
  1942              Family broadcasting station closed                                                     DXM New Caledonia     
  1942              FK8AA replaced by La Voix de le France dans la Pacifique             DXM New Caledonia   
  1943 Jan       FK8AA 6130 kHz heard daily weak signal                                             R&H 77.10 2-43 47
  1943 Feb       FK8AA 6130 kHz heard daily, latter part of transmission in English      R&H 77.10 3-43 45
  1943 Apr       FK8AA 6155 kHz expanded hours, English & French                           R&H 77.10 5-43 45
  1943 May      FK8AA 6155 kHz, expanded hours, French & English                          R&H 77.10 6-43 45
                                    Programming for troops in Pacific
  1943 Jun       FK8AA            6155 kHz, expanded hours, French & English                          R&H 77.10 7-43 45
  1943 Jul        FK7AA (?) 6155 kHz, same scheduling as last month                           R&H 77.10 8-43 45
  1943 Aug       FK8AA 6162 kHz good signal                                                                 R&H 77.10 9-43 37
  1943 Sep       FK8AA 6210 kHz good signal                                                               R&H 77.10 10-43 37
  1943 Oct       FK8AA 6200 kHz reports on new schedule wanted                             R&H 77.10 11-43 37
  1943 Nov      FK8AA 6200 kHz 6:15-7:00 pm & 8-9 pm daily, French only                          R&H 77.10 12-43 37
  1943 Dec      FK8AA 6200 kHz 6:15-7:00 pm & 8-9 pm daily, French only                            R&H 77.10 1-44 37
  1946 Jul        Final listing under FK8AA callsign 6280 kHz                                          R&H 77.10 7-46 66            
Radio Pacifique, Nouméa
  1940 Aug       Heard NZ ATC 7380 kHz, not yet heard Australia                                 R&H 77.10 9-40 56
  1940 Dec      Radio Pacifique 4050 kHz 9 pm & 7280 kHz 8:30 pm                          R&H 77.10 1-41 55
  1941 Nov      100 watts on 7560 kHz                                                                                 ISWC 11-41 16  
  1942              FK8AA replaced by La Voix de le France dans la Pacifique             DXM New Caledonia

4. SQOTW28: Special QSL of the Week

Progressive Topics

No  Call       Location                  Land            IRM      kHz   (k)W Year    Date     Significance                           QSL  NWS ——————————————————————————————————————————————————
001 7LA      Launceston Tasmania     AMP    1100      .1  1961 Nov 6       Emergency transmitter               C    282
002 RA       Kabul           Afghanistan AMP     96.1    .01 1971 Jul 4         Experimental FM                      C    284
003 VOA    Poro            Philippines   AMP  15000    LP   1984 Feb 19      Malfunctioning exciter                 L    286
004 TTY     Perth           Australia      AMP    1130    .2    1966 Jun 24      6NM transmitter to 6ED        DIYC    287
005 ICPA    Kabul          Afghanistan AMP   102.8    ½                1972 Aug 27      Hotel Intercontinental            DIYC    289
006 KSFO  Frisco                      California     AMP      560    5     1989 Oct 18      Temporary after earthquake        C   290
007 RM       Havana       Cuba           AMP    9600 100     1982 Feb 3        Relay Radio Tashkent                C    291            008 NILB    Central   Pacific         PH    10800   LP     1968 Dec 23      Apollo Recovery, 1,000 SW         L    292
009 AWR    Ekala         Sri Lanka     CG    11800 100      1981 Feb 21      Test broadcasts Africa & ME       C    293                
010 PJC     Willemstad              Curacao      PH       8694    1      1969 Jan 9        Morse loop                                C    294
011 AFRTS Adana         Turkey         AMP    1590  .01    1980 Mar 24      Plane, WL in ft                       DIYC   295   
012 AWR    Sines          Portugal      TD       9670  250    1977 Aug 26      Self-designed AWR card            C   296
013 VoM     Honhor       Mongolia     CL     12085  250    2012 Sep 14      Lived in Ulaan Baatar              L&C   297           
014 CRI      Beijing         China           UQ    21660            2005 Sep 19      Firedrake jammer                       C   298
015 RM                         Russia         AMP  11875           1984 May 2       Russian jammer, BBC ARS?      C   299
016 NBC    Pt Moresby  New Guinea VL       4890   35      2006 Mar 18      Reduced power                          C   300
017 RM       Murmansk               Russia         JB       5930     5    1979 Jan 13      Long wait                       DIYC & L   301 018 RM      Pzavodsk          Russia         JB       5065     5    1979 Jan 21      Long wait                                    DIYC & L   302           
019 VLU2  Christmas Is Indian O.      AMP  1420     .5     1977 Aug 23      Tried many locations       DIYC & L   303            020 XMX   Christmas Is Indian O.      AMP    341     .1           1977 Aug 28      Airplane reception                  DIYC   304           021 AIR            Pt Blair        Andamans   JJ      1440      1     1992 Nov 12      Emergency transmission              L   305            022 ABC    Shepparton        Australia      TA     6080 100      2011 Feb 4        Emergency transmission            C   306 023 ORTB                        Benin           CO      SW             1985 Sep 20      Hard to hear, difficult to QSL     C   307 024 WQTC Bryan            USA-OH      AMP  1520     .5     1986 Jul 17       Two words, Bryan Radio       DIYC    308           
025 AIR        Bangalore  India            MKP   9690  500     2014 Feb 28      Memory of 1st radio broadcast   C   309 026 CHU     Ottawa  Canada        BW                 3330     3     2010 Sep 16      Low power TSW                      C&L   310
027 SW       11 Sites      Asia              TA              2 SW              2014 Jun 5        IRDR Trial Broadcasts                 C  311
028 TMR     Rogaland    Norway         TD               6210              1970 Jul 8         Jamming against RNI                    P  312
029 NBC    Pt Moresby  New Guinea JJ     3925     10      1976 Oct 25      1st report from India                      C  313 030 VOA                        Hawaii          AMP                                 
5. SQOTW28: Special QSL of the Week

Alphabetic Listing

            Title                              Call       City                  Country             IRM      City              Country         NWS            ——————————————————————————————————————————————————
Airplane Monitoring                   AFRS   Adana               Turkey              AMP     Airplane        Turkey            295
                                                XMX     Christmas Is      Indian Ocean     AMP     Airplane        Indian Ocean  304 
Apollo Recovery                       NILB     USS Arlington   Pacific              PH        Woodland H USA-CA          292
Demonstration Transmitter         TTY      Perth                W Australia       AMP     Perth            Australia         287
Difficult to hear                         ORTB                           Benin                CO       Norrkoping   Sweden           307 Earthquake Emergency                   KSFO   San Francisco   USA                 AMP     Eugene         USA-OR          290
Emergency Transmitter              7LA      Launceston       Tasmania          AMP     Launceston  Tasmania         282
                                                AIR       Port Blair          Andaman Is       JJ         Hyderabad   India                305
                                                ABC     Shepparton       Australia           TA        Depok          Indonesia        306 Experimental FM                       RA        Kabul                Afghanistan      AMP     Kabul            Afghanistan     284
First Report: India                      NBC     Port Moresby    New Guinea       JJ                             India               313 Jammer: Firedrake                      CRI       Beijing              China                UQ-S    Norrkoping   Sweden           298
              Rogaland                    TMR     Rogaland          Norway             TD        Rosrath        Germany          312
              Russian                      RM                               Russia              AMP     Poona          India               299
Listener Designed QSL Card      AWR     Sines                Portugal            TD        Rosrath         Germany         296
Long Wait: 11 Years                  XMX     Christmas Is      Indian Ocean     AMP     Airplane        Indian Ocean  304
                 23 Years                  RM       Murmansk         Russia              JB        Lexington      USA-MA         301
                 23 years                   RM       Petrozavodsk    Russia              JB        Lexington      USA-MA         302
Low Power                                CHU     Ottawa              Canada             BW       Karoonda     S Australia       310           
Malfunctioning Exciter               VOA     Poro                 Philippines        AMP     Lahore          Pakistan         286
Many Locations                         VLU2    Christmas Is      Indian Ocean     AMP     Carnarvon    Australia          303
Memories: Letter from Home      VOM     Honhor             Mongolia          CL        Bloomington USA-IN           297
                 1st Radio Broadcast  AIR       Bangalore         India                 MKP     Kerala           India               309
Morse Code Loop                     PJC      Willemstad        Curacao            PH        Woodland H USA-CA          294
Reduced Power                         NBC     Pt Moresby       New Guinea      VL         Naples          USA-FL           300           
Short Reception Report             WQTC   Bryan                USA-OH            AMP     Marion          USA-IN           308
Tashkent Relay                          RM       Havana             Cuba                AMP     Berrien  S      USA-MI           291 Test Broadcasts                               AWR     Ekala                Sri Lanka          CG       Nice              France            293
                                                IRDR    11 sites             Asia                  TA        Depok          Indonesia        311
Translation Transmitter               ICPA     Kabul                Afghanistan      AMP     Kabul            Afghanistan     289