Wednesday, July 31, 2013

Wavescan NWS231

* Theme - 00:00
            "Birthday Serenade" - Willi Glahe
* Opening Announcement - 00:15
            Welcome to "Wavescan", international DX program from Adventist World Radio
            Researched and written in Indianapolis, produced in studios of shortwave WRMI
            Program outline
                        1. 100 Years of Wireless & Radio in Bulgaria - Part 7: Unusual Relay Services
                        2. NASB Report: AWR Dr. Dowell Chow - 2
                        3. Australian DX Report
* 100 Years of Wireless & Radio in Bulgaria - Part 7: Unusual Relay Services - 00:51
            On this occasion here in Wavescan, we pick up the story of shortwave broadcasting in Bulgaria once again and this is part 7, with a focus on the interesting relay services via Radio Bulgaria, beginning way back during the era of World War 2.  That is when programming from Radio Moscow in Russia was first noted on the air via transmitters in Bulgaria.
            It was on October 7, 1941, at the time when Bulgaria was politically aligned with Germany, that Radio Moscow began a radio program service in the Bulgarian language that was beamed to Bulgaria on mediumwave.  This programming was transmitted on Russian radio stations though they were tuned to the same frequency as radio stations located within Bulgaria.  Subsequently, when Russian forces moved into Bulgaria, this same programming from Radio Moscow was broadcast via radio stations located inside Bulgaria itself.
            The American radio magazine, Radio News, informs us that the Radio Moscow shortwave service in English to North America was noted on relay via Bulgaria, beginning in July 1951.  This news item states that this new Radio Moscow relay service was on the air via a new high powered shortwave transmitter in Bulgaria.  However, a comparison with known radio events in Bulgaria would suggest that the specific transmitter was actually a lower powered unit rated at 15 kW and located on the edge of Sofia that had been recently renovated by the Hungarian Standard company.
            Two years later, a new service from Radio Moscow was taken on relay via Radio Sofia mediumwave, and this half hour programming for local listeners was heard every Friday evening beginning at 9:30 pm.
            The WRTVHB lists a regular Radio Moscow service on shortwave to the Americas via Bulgaria with anywhere up to 10 different transmitters on the air at the Sofia & Plovdiv transmitter sites.  The first listing for this relay service is given in the WRTVHB for the year 1977. 
            Then, for example, Transmission Period D in the year 1986 as printed in the Australian DX News, lists the following five daily services beamed to the Americas from Radio Moscow via the 100/500 kW shortwave transmitters located in Bulgaria:-
* World Service                       English            North America                        2200-2300 UTC            7115 kHz
* North American Service      English            North America                        2300-0400                     7115
* Latin American Service        Spanish           South America                        2300-0500                     6115
* North American Service      English            North America                        1030-0400                     6070
* World Service                       English            North America                        1000-1500                   15225
            These relay services, Radio Moscow via Bulgaria, came to an end in 1993, and at that time, just two or three transmitters were on the air for this purpose.            
            We return to the year 1941.  On July 22, just two weeks after Radio Moscow began its special broadcasts beamed to Bulgaria on mediumwave, a series of clandestine broadcasts was launched from Radio Moscow and beamed towards Spain.  Soon after Germany attacked Russia in mid 1942, production of the programming for Radio Espana Independente was transferred from Moscow to the city of Ufa in the southern Russian state of Bashkiria.
            On January 5, 1955, program production was transferred again, this time to Bucharest in Romania and it was broadcast from an 18 kW shortwave transmitter.  During its final era, it is known that this long standing clandestine station was on the air from a 50 kW shortwave transmitter identified as K5 that was located at Kostinbrod in Bulgaria.  The 36 year history of the infamous clandestine Radio Espana Independente ended without ceremony on July 14, 1977.
            Interestingly, there were two additional relay services from Radio Moscow that were transmitted  on relay via Bulgaria.  Back in the 1960s, Andy Sennitt at the BBC Monitoring Service in England noted that Radio Moscow was on the air with a special service in Spanish beamed to Chile in South America under the program title, Radio Magallanes.
            At the time, this programming was produced in Chile at Radio Magallanes and re-broadcast by Radio Moscow via Radio Sofia in Bulgaria.  However, when the political scene in Chile changed in 1973, some of the Radio Magallanes staff in Chile transferred to Russia and they continued the production of this program at Radio Moscow.  This special programming in Spanish via Radio Paz y Progresso came to an end in 1978 when again, the political climate in Chile took another change.
            Another notorious clandestine that was on the air from eastern Europe was inaugurated at the end of the year 1957 and it was identified on air as Radio Peyk-e-Iran, Radio Courier of Iran.  Program production took place in East Germany with shortwave transmission also from this same east European country.  However, the broadcasts of Radio Peyk-e-Iran were transferred to Bulgaria in September 1965 and they were noted on two channels, 9555 & 11697 kHz.  This clandestine station closed its 19 year history at the end of the year 1976, again without due ceremony.
            Interestingly, as Jerome Berg in suburban Boston tells us in his authoritative volume "Broadcasting on the Shortwaves", a jammer was launched against Radio Courier of Iran and it played the song "Kiss Me Honey" endlessly.  Perhaps these jamming transmitters were located at Baghdad in Iraq.
            For a period of 8 years, beginning in the latter part of the year 1953, the programming of Radio Tirana Albania also was noted on relay from Radio Sofia in Bulgaria.  As stated in the American radio magazine, "Radio News", this half hour program was on the air on Sundays only, at MN30 UTC on 9700 kHz.  According to the 1956 edition of the WRTVHB, the frequency 9700 kHz was emitted by a 100 kW transmitter located at Stolnik in Bulgaria.
            Interestingly, the relevant issues of the WRTVHB  during this era do not list the Bulgarian relay from Radio Tirana, though the actual time slot in the service to North America on 9700 kHz is simply shown as vacant.  In November, 1961, two new transmitters at 50 kW were inaugurated for Radio Tirana at Sijak in Albania, and the weekly relay via Radio Sofia Bulgaria came to a quiet end.
            Another significant relay service carried by Radio Sofia on both shortwave and mediumwave was presented on behalf of the Voice of America, beginning in the Fall of 1993.  Initially this daily VOA relay service was beamed to Africa in English via two high powered transmitters located at the Plovdiv shortwave station.  The afternoon service was an hour in duration, and the evening service half an hour.
            However in 1997, a half hour VOA program in the Serbian language was introduced using a 500 kW mediumwave transmitter on 1224 kHz located at Vidin.  The VOA usage of Bulgarian transmitters came to an end during the year 1999.
* Program Announcement - 09:33
            Allen Graham
* NASB Report - 10:22
            AWR Dr. Dowell Chow - 2
* Australian DX Report - 13:16
            Bob Padula
* Annual Contest Reminder - 25:35
            Runs during the month of July. 
            All entries need to be postmarked no later than next Wednesday, July 31.
                        A. List your five best QSLs from Africa and state briefly why
                        B. Photocopy your five best QSLs from Africa
                        C. List your five most wanted QSLs from Africa
                        D. Three reception reports
                                    AWR relay stations in Africa, or AWR relay stations broadcasting to Africa
                        E. Send three radio related postcards
            Africa Nightfall Music, instrumental
* Closing Announcement - 27:00
            Thanks for listening to "Wavescan", international DX program from Adventist World Radio
            Researched and written in Indianapolis
            Next week:-
                        1. NASB Report
                        2. Tribute to Family Radio Shortwave - 3: The Early Years in Boston
                        3. Japan DX Report
            Two QSL cards available - AWR & WRMI
            Wavescan address:-
                        Box 29235
                        Indiana 46229 USA
            Wavescan @
            Jeff White, shortwave WRMI
* Music Outrun - 28:20
* Program Ends - 28:55

Redeeming All India Radio

India requires a grand vision for radio and a new approach to public service broadcasting. This article on public service broadcasting and communication rights argues that the All India Radio should remain true to its status as a public broadcaster. Instead of competing commercially with FM broadcasters, it must explore possibilities to devolve local radio further and experiment with this medium as a means of delivering information, education and entertainment.

For a variety of reasons, the human rights framework in India, as in most other countries, is yet to grapple with the distinct nature of communication rights (CRs) or validate its specificity as a human right on a par with other human rights that we often take for granted. Scholars have described CRs as a third generation "solidarity right" along with the right to peace, right to environment and other rights (the first generation being civil and political rights and the second being economic, social and cultural rights). While we can argue on where CRs should be located among these levels, given that the right to speak, to articulate, to voice can be considered a first principle and the basis for all other rights, the very fact that we live lives within a multitude of communication environments, many that are not of our choosing, makes it an imperative that we consider its role in shaping our lives in positive and negative ways. Why we communicate, how we communicate, who communicates and who does not communicate suggests that there are rules that structure access and use of communications.

Also see

Tuesday, July 30, 2013

Radio Veritas Asia launches new website for its Hindi service

Philippines based shortwave radio broadcaster Radio Veritas Asia has launched new website for its hindi service. The new website can be accessed at :
Alokesh Gupta, New Delhi, India [DX Asia YG] 


Monday, July 29, 2013

Radio Times's 90th anniversary celebrated in exhibition

The Queen, triumphant in this 60th summer since the coronation, does have to admit defeat in one corner of British cultural life. Doctor Who has now been the subject of more front cover features on the Radio Timesthan even the monarch during the listings magazine's 90 years.

The history of the publication, which began life in 1923 when radio was a fledgling medium, is to be marked in a free exhibition starting Friday 2 August at the Museum of London. The displays will feature many early covers and tell the story of British broadcasting, from the BBC's first radio transmission in London to the modern multi-channel offering.

World’s biggest SW modernization project under execution in Taiwan

Ampegon has received the third part of an ongoing contract by RTI Radio Taiwan International to upgrade two radio transmission sites in Taiwan. In cooperation with the local partner Techway Engineering Ltd, Ampegon will manufacture, install and commission a total of ten 300 kW DRM shortwave transmitters and twelve rigid dipole broadcast antennas HR2/2/0.3 securing low and efficient maintenance works.
Alokesh Gupta
New Delhi, India [Via: [dx_sasia] 


Thursday, July 25, 2013

Monitoring Times to Cease Publication

December 2013 will be the last issue of Monitoring Times.

Yes, I'm as surprised as you are.

This isn't April first, so I have to assume the following message from
Bob Grove is real:

After 33 years of publishing the most informative and lauded
magazine on monitoring the radio spectrum, Judy and I are finally going
to retire. We are grateful for the dedicated efforts of our fine staff
of writers for the excellent work which has kept MT alive for all these
years. While we know the discontinuation of MT, with our December issue,
will be a disappointment to our readers and writers alike, we realize
that a combination of a down-turned economy, as well as the ready
availability of free listening and technical information on the
Internet, has reduced sales and subscriptions throughout the market
place. I would like to thank you personally for your knowledge, your
dependability, and your professionalism in making MT the publication
that is most often referred to in the radio monitoring hobby. It is a
legacy that we have all inherited.

They haven't even changed the web site yet.

I'm going to miss my column a lot. I will keep my blog and web site up,
with the appropriate changes, as they are hosted separately.
Presumably, I'll have more time to spend on these, so they'll be more up
to date and informative.

Hugh Stegman via UDXF [Alokesh Gupta posted to Indian DX Club International]

Special postal cover of Chennai AIR station released

The cover has a photograph of AIR, Chennai, which is celebrating its platinum jubilee — Photo: K.V. Srinivasan
Everyone who gathered at the All India Radio station here on Tuesday had memories to share of their favourite medium of entertainment that celebrates its platinum jubilee year.
Former Supreme Court judge S. Mohan who released the platinum jubilee souvenir recalled his younger days when radio was the only medium of communication and entertainment.
"I was moved by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru's speech, broadcast after Mahatma Gandhi's death. Radio has been a launch pad for renowned musicians," he said.
A special postal cover, carrying a photograph of the AIR station in Chennai and a brief description about its services, was released exclusively for the occasion.
S.K. Agarwal, additional director general, AIR, south zone, elaborated on the digitisation of the stations that was aimed at better quality of broadcasting.
Source: The Hindu 

Wednesday, July 24, 2013

Digital radio to hit SA’s airwaves

South Africa is taking concrete steps towards introducing digital radio broadcasts using a standard known as DAB+, with a trial planned for 2014. The move will usher in greater competition in the radio sector, with digital eventually likely to replace the familiar FM and AM dials.
Radio broadcasters, led by the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) and the Southern African Digital Broadcasting Association (Sadiba), are planning a trial network next year — it's scheduled to be launched in February 2014 and to run for 12 months — to understand the complexities around the technology and how best it can be introduced commercially to South African audiences.
State-owned signal distributor Sentech has agreed to provide the DAB+ signal free of charge to radio stations that want to participate in the trial, which will take place in Gauteng using high-powered transmitters on the Sentech tower in Brixton and on the Kameeldrift tower outside Pretoria.
Industry players, including sector regulator Icasa, met at a high-level workshop in Johannesburg this week to discuss how the digital audio broadcasting (DAB) standard — and its successor, DAB+ — were introduced in markets around the world and how best to approach its introduction here.
The country has been dabbling with DAB since the late 1990s, but hasn't made much progress in introducing commercial services, mainly because the industry has been tied up in the migration from analogue to digital terrestrial television. But this week's workshop, hosted at the SABC in Auckland Park, appears to have given fresh impetus to the process. "We should not wait for television [migration]," says Sadiba secretary Gerhard Petrick. "We have the momentum now and we should move with it."
DAB has been introduced in a number of countries around the world as a complement — at least for now — to the analogue FM and AM bands. Some countries, like Norway — which was the first country to launch a commercial DAB radio station — plan to switch off analogue radio broadcasts altogether.
Jørn Jensen, president of the WorldDMB Forum, an industry body responsible for developing DAB, DAB+ and other digital broadcasting standards, told this week's workshop that Norway plans to switch off the FM dial in 2017. Denmark has earmarked 2019 as its switch-off date.
UK regulator Ofcom, meanwhile, is expected to make an announcement in December about its switchover plans. According to Jensen, 22m adults in Britain have access to DAB radio, with 94% of the population covered with digital radio signals.
In Australia, 60% of the population is covered, with 1,6m people, or 12,6% of the population, listening on a DAB+ device each week, says Kathryn Brown, head of strategic development at industry group Commercial Radio Australia. She explains that improved sound quality, coupled with more radio stations for consumers to choose from, has driven adoption in Australia, although the country has not yet set a date to terminate FM broadcasts.
Dave Cherry, who chairs the task group managing the planned NAB and Sadiba DAB+ trial, says South Africa faces a number of challenges in introducing digital radio, not least of which is the fact the migration to digital television is taking longer than expected.
Ideally, broadcasters should use the trial — which will consist of up to 20 public service, commercial and community stations — to begin marketing digital radio to consumers ahead of a commercial launch at the end of the one-year trial period. However, because television broadcasters are still likely to be using the spectrum that has been set aside for commercial DAB+ radio when the trial ends, they can't begin to market the technology yet. However, enthusiasts keen to check out digital radio during the trial period will still be able to buy DAB+ receivers and tune in. Those receivers, which currently cost US$20 and up, will work when digital radio is launched commercially.
Jaisakthivel, ADXC, Tirunelveli, India

India's campus radio grows into community platforms

Saba Raes, a middle-aged Muslim housewife, has her hands full seven days a week with household chores and her children but takes an hour out every Monday to record Hamd-o-Naat, a series of hymns in praise of Allah, for Radio Jamia. It's the invocation that begins the daily broadcast of the campus radio station of the Jamia Millia Islamia, one of 's oldest universities, here.
"I have been singing for Radio Jamia for over a year now. My husband encourages me and my children and the people in the neighborhood raptly listen to my singing," a confident Saba Raes told IANS, sitting in front of a studio microphone.
As India is a year away from celebrating a decade of the campus radio's existence, it is evident that in this period, the concept has become a platform for the communities living around the colleges.
The government had issued guidelines in 2003 for educational institutions to set up campus radio's and Anna University in Tamil Nadu was the first off the block in February 2004.
Today there are nearly a 100 campus radios in the country, but the actual number could be higher since there are no details about these in the northeast beyond Guwahati.
Transmission occurs through a four-way process. The audio from the microphone is transferred to the audio mixing console. From here, it goes to an amplifier. From the amplifier one signal goes to the transmitter and the other to a computer to be stored for repeat broadcast. The final process is the transmission of signal through an antennae, which is some 25-30 metres high.

Tuesday, July 23, 2013

Wavescan NWS230

* Theme - 00:00
            "Birthday Serenade" - Willi Glahe
* Opening Announcement - 00:16
            Welcome to "Wavescan", international DX program from Adventist World Radio
            Researched and written in Indianapolis, produced in studios of shortwave WRMI
            Program outline
                        1. Focus on Africa: The Mozambique Radio Story from Colin Miller in Canada
                        2. Bangladesh DX Report
                        3. International DX Report
* Focus on Africa: The Mozambique Radio Story - 00:48
            Our thanks to Colin Miller in Sarnia, Ontario, who wrote this story in 1996 and sent it to us for inclusion in Wavescan.
            When the Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama discovered the coast of Mozambique in 1498, little did he realize that a few centuries later this land would be one of Portugal's largest and richest colonies.  In the 16th and 17th centuries an extensive coastal trade in gold and ivory was developed with the Arabs, who had already established settlements along the East African coast.  It was for many years one of the unhealthiest places in Africa, being notorious for fever and a bad climate.
            In 1544 the explorer Lourenço Marques visited the territory around Delagoa Bay, and built fortifications at the site of the city that was later named after him.  The Dutch set up a trading post here in 1721, the first attempt at a permanent settlement.   The real growth of Lourenço Marques was stimulated by the construction of the railroad to South Africa just over a century ago.  It was for many years a popular holiday resort for South Africans, and the luxurious Polana Hotel provided a Continental atmosphere. Lourenco Marques is known as Maputo today; the population is over a million.
            Mozambique has a total land area of 309,494 square miles and a population of more than 17 million.  It lies along the southeast coast of Africa, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the east, Tanzania in the north, Malawi and Zambia in the northwest, Zimbabwe and Swaziland in the west, and South Africa in the west and south.  It consists of coastal lowlands, and high mountains in the northwest. Part of Lake Malawi lies along the northwest border.
             Ethnically, the population can be divided into three groups.  The Tonga group live south of the Save (Sabi) River.  Between the Save and Zambezi is the Karanga group.  The Nyanja inhabit the northwestern part of Mozambique.  The Limpopo, Save and Zambezi are the main rivers.  It is mainly an agricultural country, and sugar cane, cashew nuts and shrimp are the major products.
            Broadcasting began in Portuguese East Africa on March 18, 1933, when a small station opened in Lourenço Marques.  The following year C. J. McHarry, a South African, made plans to start a broadcasting service to South Africa.  When the Radio Clube de Moçambique was founded in 1935, listeners in South Africa tuned in to the familiar Portuguese voices announcing:
Audio Insert:
            Woman, "Aqui Lourenço Marques, Radio Clube de Moçambique, transmitir en ondas curtas. This is the Radio Club of Mozambique". 
            The station, affectionately known as LM, presented most programs in English, and a few in Afrikaans, with popular music and entertainment predominating.  When the Portuguese government gave McHarry the right to sell advertising on the air, LM introduced commercial radio to southern Africa.
Audio Insert:
            LM Radio, theme music & ID
            Colonel Richard L. Meyer had been associated with the International Broadcasting Company of London.  This company operated English stations, and Radio Toulouse, Radio Lyons and Radio Normandy in France.  In 1947 he took over the management of LM Radio in association with John Davenport - later an executive of the Reader's Digest Association - and beamed this highly successful commercial radio service into South Africa.
            In 1948 "Anything Goes", one of the first South African-produced radio variety shows, was recorded by Charles Berman, produced and hosted by Peter Merrill, scripted by Monte Doyle and featuring Dan Hill and his orchestra (not to be confused with the Toronto-born singer-songwriter), and other well-known entertainment personalities in South Africa.  These celebrities provided many subsequent radio productions, especially after the birth of Springbok Radio, the first commercial station on South African soil, in 1950.  "Anything Goes" was recorded in front of a "live" audience in the 20th Century Theater in Johannesburg, for broadcast on LM Radio.  The show proved to be so popular that at one performance in 1949, 4,000 people, surged into the theater braking the large glass entrance doors!
            Another program at that time, "This Is How", provided household hints and other information for housewives, as well as contests with prizes of hampers of sponsors' products.  This period was the golden era of radio in the region.
            One of the most popular programs for many years was "Lucky Dip", where listeners sent in music requests and dedications for broadcast.  One of the most popular broadcasters on the station at that time was David Davies, the "man with the golden voice". 
Audio Insert:
            David Davies, dramatic reading
            When rock 'n' roll was beginning to make its presence felt in the fifties, it was quite common to hear requests from various fan clubs; for instance Elvis Presley, Pat Boone and Cliff Richard.  You would often hear anonymous requests: "to Cindy, from you-know-who".  At the end of the show, a draw was made with prizes of gift certificates for record singles.
            And the kids were not forgotten either.  Each afternoon at 4:00 there was a program of birthday greetings and music requests, followed by serials such as "Superman", and speciality shows for the youngsters.
            Also in the fifties, new transmitters were added, and a separate service was available with religious programming during the evening on a frequency in the 60 meter band.  This featured various American syndicated programs like "Back to the Bible", "Hour of Decision" and "The World Tomorrow".
            During that period, LM Radio carried out a series of stereo tests on shortwave.  These were the first such tests in southern Africa, and to my knowledge the first on shortwave in the world.  Two frequencies were used in the 60 meter band, one for the left channel and the other for the right.  This meant that you had to have two separate receivers to achieve the stereo effect.  Not too many households had more than one radio in those days, as transistor radios were only just coming on the market.  I was one of the unfortunate ones who could not enjoy the program in stereo.  I had to flick back and forth between the two frequencies but couldn't make much sense of it.  The program included a short drama presentation with some dialogue between two people, and either a ping-pong or a tennis game.
            The station underwent a major format change in the late fifties, as the new trends in music were attracting the younger set.  The block programming was replaced by DJ's playing rock 'n' roll and teenbeat music.  LM was becoming more popular than Springbok Radio in South Africa, especially for teenagers and young adults.  This continued into the sixties and seventies.
            But, political changes were to put an end to this and the radio station was handed over to the Armed Forces.  LM Radio had been under SABC control since 1972, and relays of the station began on local medium wave transmitters in South Africa.
            On June 25, 1975, independence was achieved from Portugal and the Radio Clube de Moçambique was renamed Radio Moçambique, and it became state controlled.  On October 12, the LM Radio facilities were nationalized, and the existing station finally closed, moving to Johannesburg as Radio 5.
Audio Insert:
            LM Radio: Final closing announcement, tomorrow morning Radio 5
            Of course, during the years that LM Radio was on the air, RCM also operated a domestic Portuguese service.  This was also heard clearly in South Africa and provided a radio service for the large Portuguese community there.  At one time RCM was operating up to four program services, including LM Radio.
Audio Insert:
            Radio Clube, theme music & ID
            Short wave regional stations were opened in the fifties at Nampula, Quelimane and Porto Amelia (now Pemba).  These stations broadcast in Portuguese as well as in local vernaculars.  In June 1969 the Dondo station opened near Beira with two 10 kW, one 25 kW and one 100 kW shortwave transmitters, as well as one 50 kW and two 10 kW mediumwave transmitters.  At least one of the shortwave units was still operating on 3370 and 9637 kHz in 1996.
            During the Portuguese colonial period, a few independent private stations were on the air.  All of these were nationalized in 1975 when the new government came to power.  Emissora do Aeroclube da Beira, a commercial station operated by the Air Club of Beira, was on the air in the late forties using a 300 watt shortwave transmitter with the call CR7IB.  By 1958 the power had been increased to 5 kW.
            Radio Pax, also located in Beira, opened in 1955.  It was a religious station, operated by the Franciscan Fathers.  It used two low power shortwave transmitters with the calls CR7RA and CR7RB. The power was also later increased.
            In 1968, Radio Mocidade (Radio Youth), a station for students, was inaugurated on a low power mediumwave transmitter in Lourenço Marques.  It was owned and operated by the Portuguese Youth Organization, and operated on an irregular schedule.
            As part of its nationalistic policy, the government changed the names of various towns in 1976 to reflect the new African rule.  Lourenço Marques was renamed Maputo.  In 1977, a new interval signal was introduced on Radio Moçambique, consisting of an indigenous musical instrument, the mbira, similar to a xylophone.
Audio Insert:
            Mbira music, African folk style
            In the years following independence, Radio Moçambique introduced an external service, broadcasting for a few hours each day in English to South Africa and what was then Rhodesia.  This service was still on the air in 1996, although the new political situation in the region changed the program content.
            As with so many third-world countries, broadcasting facilities deteriorated because spare parts were difficult to obtain.  Transmitters either broke down or were not operating properly.  Some drifted in frequency.  I can remember one occasion when one of the Maputo transmitters drifted on to that of another Maputo program, causing interference!
            Radio Moçambique, being a public company, has been facing severe financial difficulties in more recent time.  One of Radio Moçambique's transmitters in Maputo, began carrying the BBC Portuguese service in May 1996.
                         Maputo, probably:      MW   738 kHz      50 kW
                                                            SW  3210             10
                                                                    3338             10
                                                                    6111             10; and perhaps
                                                                  15290           120
            According to a BBC Monitoring report, Manuel Veterano, Chairman of the station's board of directors, indicated that 12 out of the 15 short wave transmitters were off the air.  As a result, the domestic service was audible only in the southern part of the country.
            Stations that still seemed to be active on short wave were:
                        Emissora Provincial de Sofala in Beira, officially scheduled at 0200-0500 UTC &   1500-2200 UTC on 3370 kHz v, and 0250-2255 UTC on 9637 kHz v.
                        Emissao Nacional in Maputo officially scheduled at 0700-1500 UTC on 15291 kHz v.
                        Emissora Interprovincial de Maputo on 4921.2 kHz from 0250 UTC sign on.
* LM Radio Update
            Update available on website
            LM Radio revived on radio December 2009
            DRM shortwave planned 2014
* National Anthem - 17:04
            Mozambique, brass
* Program Announcement - 18:24
            Allen Graham
* Bangladesh DX Report - 19:13
            Salahuddin Dolar
* International DX Report - 23:18
            Dolar new baby
            KVOH return to the air & QSL card
            Mexico DX Meeting
* Music of the World - 26:07
            Mozambique: Folk style, instrumental & vocal
* Annual Contest Reminder - 26:30
            Runs during the month of July
                        A. List your five best QSLs from Africa and state briefly why
                        B. Photocopy your five best QSLs from Africa
                        C. List your five most wanted QSLs from Africa
                        D. Three reception reports
                                    AWR relay stations in Africa, or AWR relay stations broadcasting to Africa
                        E. Send three radio related postcards
* Closing Announcement - 27:24
            Thanks for listening to "Wavescan", international DX program from Adventist World Radio
            Researched and written in Indianapolis
            Next week:-
                        1. 100 Years of Wireless & Radio in Bulgaria - Part 7: Unusual Relay Services
                        2. Tribute to Family Radio Shortwave - 3: The Early Years in Boston
                        3. Australian DX Report
            Two QSL cards available - AWR & WRMI
            Wavescan address:-
                        Box 29235
                        Indiana 46229 USA
            Wavescan @
            Jeff White, shortwave WRMI
* Music Outrun - 28:30
* Program Ends - 28:55